After targeting the essential tones of a chord (3rd and 7th), there are two things you can fall back on, or learn as a beginner.
The first is the "Joe Pass" lick. The "formula" for this lick is play the scale step above and the a half-step below your target tone. For a dominant 7th chord, you would probably want to target the 7th, since that is what is giving the chord its character from a Major 7th. A scale step above is the root. Then slide a half-step below the 7th. Finally, hit the chord tone -- the 7th itself. You can also swap the "upper neighbor" (the root in this case) and the "lower neighbor" (the sixth in this case), but always resolve on the chord tone. You can start the upper neighbor or lower neighbor on the "and" of a rhythm to give it more of a "punch" when you land on the chord tone.
The next thing you can learn is to arpeggiate from the chord tone, down or up. I learned arpeggios going down, but now I need to learn them going up. I need to find the 3rd and 7th on the upper strings and learn my arpeggios descending. You probably are only going to get 4 tones at most during quick changes when starting out.
For a dominant, you can drop down in minor 3rds from the 7th of the dominant chord, like a descending diminished scale run. This will land you on the flat 2 of the dominant, which is a bit hipper than landing on the root. In the meantime, you will hit the 5th and the 3rd. Pretty cool!